Saturday, May 23, 2020

Financial Crisis Essay - 6766 Words

Introduction â€Å"We are having the single worst recovery the U.S. has had since the Great Depression. I dont care how you measure it. The East Coast knows it. The West Coast knows it. North, South, old, young, everyone knows its the worst recovery since the Great Depression† (Arthur Laffer) I felt this was an apt way to begin my report and analysis on the credit crisis and aspects which can help the world to recover. Although the quote discusses the US I feel this can be applied worldwide. I will discuss in detail what I feel should be implemented to fight the extent and period of recession and austerity which we are operating in. The areas which I will focus on for this analysis will be on the regulation of the financial markets and how†¦show more content†¦I feel the US would never default as it would create a crisis far greater than the great depression and the most recent â€Å"Great Recession†. The ultimate objective for new regulation and trading infrastructure improvements will be to reduce the potential for systemic risk should another major CDS dealer fail, and to improve transparency in the market to facilitate exposure reporting and pricing. What effect such regulation will have on the CDS market remains difficult to gauge. Returning to the debate on the regulation of the default swaps, I feel the planned regulation that the companies who must act as insurance to participate in the regulation market is not severe enough to help the global economy recover. I feel that as history will eventually repeat itself we must try to update the regulation and observation of these new credit products. Personally I feel that the proposed acts to review all trades both public and private is too complicated and flawed to be put into effect along with it also being an invasion of a person’s privacy. I feel that if I were the head of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) I would propose the opening of a branch whose would specialise solely in Credit Default Swaps with the final say for the market being with this office. I feel that if this were to be implemented in each continent with regular contact with the head authority this would lead to a much tighter and clearerShow MoreRelated The Structure of a Financial Crisis Essay4624 Words   |  19 PagesStructure of a Financial Crisis INTRODUCTION   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The year 2001 had been unlucky for Turkey. Apart from the crisis in 1994 and November 2000, the country had to face another financial crisis, causing problems in the management of its economy. Why does a country delve deep into financial crisis? What are the possible immediate triggers for both the current and potential new crises? 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Background The Financial crisis was triggered in 2006 when US housing market began to crumble as the housing price reached their highest point after years of speculative price increase; many house owners defaulted on their loans, particularly subprime mortgagers (Archarya et al., 2009). Starting in mid-2007, the outburst of US housing bubble in the subprime mortgage leads to the global financial crisis that has been often so called ‘Great Recession’ (Verick and Islam, 2010)Read MoreImpact of Financial Crisis on Gulf Area Essay1732 Words   |  7 PagesThe global financial crisis that was experienced in 2007/2008 affected many nations of the world. Some countries such as America and most European countries were hard hit since they were directly affected by the crisis. Other countries especially those in Asia and Africa were not adversely affected as they were not directly hit by the crisis. This crisis started in the United States after the housing bubble busted. Although the burst ing of the housing bubble was the main cause of the crisis, there wereRead MoreFinancial Crisis Essay1088 Words   |  5 Pagesinvestors propagated the financial crises. Institutional investors, which is both, individual or companies do enjoy the benefits of reduced commission preferential regulations. This is due to their large and professional investments. Institutional investors like the mutual funds, pension funds, hedge funds like Magnetar Capital, and Life insurance companies like the AIG and investments trusts contributed to the global financial crises of 2007-2008. This financial crisis also referred to as the great

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Marketing plan for shoes company -New Balance - 7828 Words

1. Introduction Founded by William Riley in 1906 as the New Balance Arch Company, in Belmont, MA, New Balance manufactured arch supports and orthopedic shoes. During the fifties and sixties, athletes turned to the company for customized running shoes due to New Balances unique expertise in handcrafting specialized footwear. Paul Kidd bought the company in 1956 and increased the shoe-making sector as demand grew. Production of running shoes soon became the companys primary source of business. The New Balance Trackster, one of the first running shoes made, grew very popular not only because of its technical innovation, but because it was available in a wide range of widths. In 1972, New Balance was purchased by current Chairman and†¦show more content†¦The Government places a high priority on consultation with business and the community, to ensure that the trade policy objectives developed by the Government sufficiently reflect the views, concerns and ambitions of the Australian public. The Australian Government provides services to Australian business to access overseas markets. This can be highlighted through the multilateral, bilateral and regional trade policies adopted by the Government. Australia, through the World Trade Organization (WTO) (http://www.dfat.gov.au./trade/negotiations) negotiates trade agreements which provide the legal ground-rules for international trade. As a result, since the political arena in Australia is stable, there seems to be great prospect for trade in Australia. In Australia, the TCFL industry (textile, clothing, footwear and leather) is a major component of the trade industry. Consequently, the TCFL industry i s influenced by Government and economic policies such as interest rates, budgetary control, trade agreements etc.. The Australian Government, in an attempt to encourage trade in the footwear as well as in the clothing sector, decided to freeze the Footwear and Clothing tariffs from July 1, 2000 levels until January 1, 2005 ( refer to Table 1) (http://www.tcfoz.com.au). Sub-Sector 2000 - 2005 After 2005 Clothing finished textiles 25 %Show MoreRelatedIdentifying the Business Requirements: New Balance Shoes1167 Words   |  5 PagesIdentifying the Business Requirements New Balance had a problem. Nike owned the lion’s share of the athletic shoe market and no one could touch them. New Balance was also behind Adidas and Reebok, but something happened in the last two years that changed everything. Nike also had a problem. They had gotten so big that customer relations became a low priority. Nike controlled the market and dictated supply and demand to even their biggest customers. Consumer input was ignored and requestsRead MoreNike s Responsibilities And Responsibilities1609 Words   |  7 Pagestoday’s society the public plays a major part in any business because in order for a business to be sustained there must be clients/customers that are contributing to the business. It’s vital that companies build their missions around focusing on the needs and demands of the customers. Nike is a company that is continually evolving with the people and society. Nike engages in public policy advocacy on a range of issues affecting their business, the industry and other areas of concern. They use theirRead MoreA Business Plan For Nouveau Riche1694 Words   |  7 PagesKenneth Guyette ACC 557 – Financial Accounting Abstract The paper presents a business plan for Nouveau riche. Nouveau riche Boutiqueis a fashion retail store located in Charleston, SC. It is a sole proprietorship and is managed by the owner. It sells fashionable clothing, shoes, purses and accessories. The business plan will also presents the projected sales analysis, projected profit and loss, and projected balance sheet in the next five years. Also, the two accounting principles is being discussedRead MoreStrategic Analysis Nike1619 Words   |  7 Pagesname of Blue Ribbon Sports, the strategy was â€Å"to distribute low-cost, high-quality Japanese athletic shoes to American consumers in an attempt to break Germany’s domination of the domestic industry.† Today Nike offers athletic shoes at every marketable price point to a global market. Nike sustains its leading position through emphasizing quality products, constant innovation, and aggressive marketing. Nike sells its products in more than 180 countries under not only its namesake brand but brands suchRead MorePrince Sports Case Study1040 Words   |  5 Pagescompetitive world and firm marketing regulatory mainly have an effect on the work of most of marketing companies or marketing and brand image divisions of the companies. In order to put into practice a winning marketing plan or a boost in sales and customer awareness companies have to stay in pace with the new marketing environment and take into thought every likely detail that might help out or ruin the image of a company or product. This case study will examine the marketing principle and vision inRead MoreAn Extended Period Of Time Shoes1717 Words   |  7 PagesFor an extended period of time shoes have been an integral part of the modern consumer’s life. According to the vast majority of fashionably inclined individuals, shoes can either make or break a person’s entire appearance, which explains why people invest their hard earned coins into comfortable abodes for their feet. Particularly, the annual budget consumers spend on shoes in the United States is $20 billion dollars, and $6.46 billion dollars stem from running shoes alone. This is what initiallyRead MorePricing Strategies : Wal Mart Become The World s Largest Retail Chain1069 Words   |  5 PagesOr why is Apple the most valuable technology company even with high priced products? First companies have to understand their market and strategies according to its demand and income level, regardless of whether they intend to offer their products at a low-price or high price. What do you think of when you hear the words â€Å"Pricing Strategy†? One of the four major elements of the marketing mix is pricing. A pricing strategy refers to the method companies used to price their products or services. Read MoreSwot Analysis Of Ecco As A Shoe Company Founded By Karl Toosbuy1462 Words   |  6 PagesHien Quang Introduction ECCO is a shoe company founded by Karl Toosbuy in Bredebro, Denmark in 1963. ECCO aims to produce the world’s most comfortable and modern footwear for work and leisure. The ECCO group produces many types of shoes including casual and outdoors for men, ladies, and children, as well as semi-sport shoes, for two different seasons – spring/summer and autumn/winter. ECCO has a production facilities in Portugal, Indonesia, Thailand and Slovakia. Mikael Thinghuus, the chief operationsRead MoreReebok Marketing Plan11312 Words   |  46 PagesDani Dylan By The Breezers: Mannan Wu Abbey Barnes Chase Carraro Mohammed Baamer Deborah Dani Dylan Final Marketing Plan | Professor Quinlan-Wilder November 16, 2011 Marketing 2800 Professor Quinlan-Wilder November 16, 2011 Marketing 2800 | | Executive Summary Reebok prides itself on creating products to enhance athletic ability. Upon formation of the company, Reebok has been dedicated to making athletes faster. Since then, Reebok has evolved into the world’s second largestRead MoreNike Paper3923 Words   |  16 PagesRunning Head: Nike, Inc. Marketing Plan Marketing Plan for Nike, Inc. â€Å"Just Do It† ShaRhonda Clark Walsh College MKT 307, Spring Semester 2010 Professor Haener May 31, 2010 Table of Contents Photo of Michael Jordan4 Marketing Plan for Nike, Inc. â€Å"Just Do It†5 Nike Organizational Development†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.6 Structure†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..6 People†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦6 Culture Systems†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Legalising Prostitution Debate, communication model and evaluation Free Essays

Section 1: Group Discussion This section contains what was discussed during group discussion session. The general area of prejudice chosen for discussion was prostitution. Dubbed the oldest profession, there was unanimous observation among group members that prostitution is still loathed in the society, and commercial sex workers, mostly women, are still treated with contempt within our society. We will write a custom essay sample on Legalising Prostitution: Debate, communication model and evaluation or any similar topic only for you Order Now The common notion about prostitution is that whilst men are often ‘buyers’ of sex service from prostituting women, the latter are victims of exploitation. The term exploitation is used because women who engage in prostitution are seen to be compelled to engage in commercial sexual activities against their will. Whilst the common fact is that women who engage in prostitution see it as a source of income, and participate in it with their full consent without coercion, we observed that it is quite difficult to convince a person whose belief is entrenched in the moral dimension of commercial sex work that it is a normal activity. The prejudice against women is also entrenched by the belief that women who engage in this trade are of lesser social standing, even though this is always not the case. The other common belief is that while women prostitutes are looked down upon, men do not suffer any form of prejudice. In other words, men are often seen as the exploiters of sex workers, and hence do not enjoy any fair share of prejudice. On the other hand, both men and women engaging in prostitution are seen as morally repugnant, hence the common prejudice that come with it. The debate to legalise prostitution or not has been in the public domain for quite some time now. But it is the increased attention that it has received in the recent past that has invoked a lot of passionate debate in many legal jurisdictions as regards whether to legalise it or not. We may be all aware that one of the reasons why same-sex marriage has gained much currency today is because it is no longer viewed as socially unacceptable to the extent that it is not legal to hold gay couples in contempt in many countries. In recent past, it was not difficult to meet some strong views against marijuana user; with some even believing that the latter were losers who should be kept at the periphery of the society. However, criticism over marijuana use has waned in the recent past because of the recent revelation that it could be used to treat cancer. In addition, marijuana has also been used for pain relief for some time. This recent development has meant opposition to campaigns to keep marijuana illegal is at an all-time low. However, the same cannot be said about prostitution. The stigma associated with the sex trade remains strong, with women and men engaging in it seen as socially ambiguous individuals without moral standing in society. This kind of idea can promote dangerous conducts towards prostitutes. The fact that prostitutes are not regarded highly puts them at more risks to abuse including rape and murder. In addition, prostitutes are more likely to contract sexually transmitted diseases, further endangering their lives. Decriminalising prostitution will not only protect women but will also improve their safety and their rights, because however much it is made illegal, the oldest profession is not likely to go away anytime. Section 2: Commentary and Rationale This section will cover commentary on the topic and discuss it based on the chosen model of communication, the heuristic-systematic model. The debate on whether to legalise prostitution or not has intensified in the recent past, with voices advocating for the latter increasing in number every day. It’s no doubt that the stigma associated with prostitution is real, and remains strong amidst the growing knowledge that it will not stop any time soon. This is despite the rising evidence that decriminalising the trade has some significant health benefits. Research by two economists, Scott Cunningham and Manisha Shah (cited in Albarracin, et al., 2005, p. 78), looked at the situation in Rhodes Island when prostitution was accidentally decriminalised and found that cases of gonorrhoea had drastically reduced, as rape incidences. . Shannon et al. (2004, cited in Griffin, 2006, p.139) also confirmed this result when they conducted a study in Vancouver, British Colombia, and found out that decriminalising of prostitution can significantly reduce HIV prevalence by minimising its spread. Despite all the evidence showing the benefits of legalising prostitution, the benefits have not attracted the attention of the legislators. . In addition, many have argued that idea of legalising prostitution is unattractive to voters and therefore to politicians. There is need to focus on presenting arguments that provide options to the intended audience on the need to legalise abortion, and that is where the model for persuasive communication will be necessary in the subsequent section of this paper. The Heuristic-Systematic Model of Social Information Processing The concept of persuasion is an important aspect to not only convincing the people to accept an idea but also to drive changes of mind towards the accomplishment of the idea. The Heuristic-Systematic Model (Chaiken Trope, 1999) recognises that people either use heuristics and short-cuts to decide on important issues, or use a systematic mechanism that processes the merits and demerits of an argument. The Heuristic approach suggests that the decision-maker asks questions such as of ‘how do I feel about this issue?’ despite the recognition that such questions can cause problems of understanding and choice, particularly when the person facing the decision dilemma mixes up the cause and the effect of their emotions. In other words, the Heuristic-Systematic Model recognises that in any argument there are a number of variables that are conceptually independent of the message quality and which are likely to influence people to act or agree with the proposed idea. Dillard Pfau (2002) state that that these variables are able to qualitatively differentiate information processing, and give people more room to negotiate with their thinking process. It is important to recognise that people rarely process information in perfect conditions, because there are often environmental and cognitive constraints that tend to either limit the broadness of reasoning or curtail information processing. In this line of thought, people tend to process information economically; investing only in cognitive efforts when they feel motivated enough with a number of cognitive resources. In the prostitution decriminalisation debate, this can be said to affect that the way people reason, that is, arguments are likely to be based on strong environmental and cognitive influences entrenched by history, personal interest or fear, religious and cultural convictions. For instance, some arguments have emerged that prostitution should remain illegal because legalising it will mean women of loose morals will increasingly tempt men of good morals to increasingly betray their families. This kind of argument tends to make out that women who engage in prostitution a re the villains. The other belief is that women who engage in prostitution should be protected from being hurt against: sexually transmitted diseases, unruly pimps, and exploitation. The other argument would only be based on religion and historical cultural practices that prohibits prostitution as a trade. The three lines of arguments are motivated by different lines of thought, which can fall in either heuristic or systematic message processing mechanism. Ironically, the arguments against prostitution which include the view that women of loose morals prey upon upstanding men of good morals and lead them to betray their families has been accepted in some countries such as Sweden, which in 1999, criminalised the buying of sex but allowed individuals to continue selling it (Dillard Pfau, 2002). Many proponents of this legislation argued that violence against prostituting in women is inherent, and that the best way was to reduce prostitution prevalence by limiting activities of the potential buyers. On the other hand, the State of Nevada, United States legalised prostitution to protect women from exploitation and abuse (Taleb, 2012). The Heuristic- Systematic model posits that people generally process persuasive information systematically only when they are fully motivated. When one is in a systematic mode, they tend to take into consideration all relevant pieces of information, elaborately analyse the information, and make a judgment based on the elaborated issues. However, whenever people are not adequately motivated or do not possess sufficient cognitive resources, they often resort to processing of information heuristically or superficially. People in a heuristic mode of thinking consider only a few or a single informational cue and come up a judgment based on the cues. Whilst decriminalising or legalising prostitution has attracted massive debate, its inability to pass the legislative hurdle or even attract attention of the political class has been overbearing for its proponents. In other words, legalising of sex trade has not been high amongst the priorities of many legislative agendas for many countries, including United Kingdom and United States (Taleb, 2012). The reason why the Heuristic- Systematic model can work towards pushing for the legalisation of prostitution is because of its dualism nature, which allows the message to reach different classes of people. The goal here is to get support for legislation that would see prostitution decriminalised, and protect the parties involved. . Expert advice backed by research findings are powerful tool to convince legislators, who may not take their time to scrutinise the quality of persuasive arguments, and mostly prefer quick fixes in making decisions. Packaging a message heuristically can allow the legislators to pick the cue, and avoid the difficult process of differentiating a strong and a weak message (Griffin, 2006). Reimer, et al (2004, p.81) observe that â€Å"people who expect to discuss a persuasion message later are more affected by the number of persuasive arguments but are never affected by the attractiveness of the communicator.† It is presumed that the importance of the message easily induce systematic processing of the message. By contrast, people who do not expect to discuss the message are often affected by how attractive the communicator is, and not affected by the number of persuasive arguments (Reimer, et al, 2004). Studies have proven that motivational variables affect the mode in which people process persuasive arguments. These variables include personal relevance of the message, importance of the task, attitude accountability and exposure to a person’s attitude (Chaiken Trope, 1999). On the other hand, there are cognitive resource variables that affect the mode of message processing, which includes distraction, repetition of the message, creating time pressure, and modality of communication, knowledge and expertise (Griffin, 2006). Although it is important to recognise these modes of communicating the message in terms of communicating the value of legalising prostitution, it should not appear as though there is any form of dissociation of the variables at the early stage of the group means (Griffin, 2006). Similarly, heuristically communicating the message should be able to have direct effects on the attitudes of the target group. In this aspect, when the people agree in a consensus t hat prostitution should be legalised, then it can be considered correct and valid for acceptance. An important factor which should be covered by any dual-process model is how the two processes interact or work together. Although one may argue that the two processes, heuristic and systematic are mutually exclusive or are competing concepts, in this case of legalising prostitution they should work together. The Heuristic-Systematic model posits that the two processes, heuristic and systematic, are indeed working simultaneously. Evidence of how these two processes can work is when arguments pitting two judgmental implications of both of them. For instance, an expert source delivering a message consisting of weak arguments can present a scenario where both systematic and heuristic processing of messages is done under different levels of motivation. It is also important to note that the heuristic-systematic model attenuates that wherever the two processes opposes each other, the implica tions the comes from systematic processing can â€Å"easily attenuate the impact of heuristic given that people are sufficiently motivated.† For example, Griffin, (2006).found out those highly motivated participants who were presented with consensus cue information that is inconsistent with the attributes singularly based their judgments on their own cognitive prowess in relation to the product attributes. This concept is applicable in the case of prostitution legalisation debate, in the sense that legislators can use their own cues and decide on the legislative agendas that will legalise commercial sex work. Section 3: Evaluation Proposal Evaluating heuristic- systematic model effectiveness is an important part of this model’s success towards ensuring the message to legalise prostitution is effectively passed. Effective communications needs evaluation, which helps to identify the impact of the efforts made in passing the message to the target audience. To effectively monitor the communication model, various tools shall be used in the process. Public opinion evaluation: Getting the opinions of the public as far as legalising prostitution is concerned is an important point to start from. Public opinion monitoring tool will be used to ask the public if they heard about the campaign to legalise prostitution from opinion leaders including legislators and non-governmental organisations. In addition, the questions will be directed to ask the public whether they agree with the manner in which legislators in support of the prostitution presented their messages or agreed with them in the context and reasons given by the leaders. For example, questions such as: Whose arguments made sense in the call to legalise prostitutionAnd whyThe questionnaire trackers will be recorded in terms of age, gender, work status, tenacity. The methodology to be used will remain consistent over time to allow for the tracking of metrics over time for comparison purposes. Evaluating media Evaluating the media response on how effective the proposed model will work, the formal process for evaluating the impact of the campaign in the media is to analyse whether it can be replicated and made part of regular campaign mechanism. Media Coverage Before Campaign (airtime/space) Coverage After Campaign (airtime/ space) % Increase in Coverage BBC National News BBC London ITV National News London Tonight Evening Standard Metro Radio 4 Times The table above will provide a guideline on how the media coverage has increased/ or decreased due to the campaign. This will be able to help bring depth to the understanding of our campaign, and if the media (both mainstream and tabloids) respond to increased debate. By monitoring how the media has changed the amount of airtime/ or newspaper coverage space in covering the legislative debates, it is possible to analyse the outcome of the campaign in ensuring the legislators continually discuss the possibility of decriminalising or legalising prostitution. The media monitoring will be conducted by assistants on everyday basis, and compiled in a weekly report for tracking if there is any change in trends. Each article or piece of broadcast coverage will be allocated points based on the following criteria: Positivity/negativity of the message (in favour of legalising prostitution): analysing the articles, opinions, newspaper columns and news coverage. Positivity/ negativity of the headlines: positive mentions of the campaign groups, legislators; and Neutrality of opinions reported Finally, a range of stories will be typically evaluated and compiled on a daily basis, and tabulated on a weekly basis. Classification of stories will ensure the campaign program can be understood in the manner in which the media responds to the legislative debates, which is likely to translate into public debate as well. References Albarracin, D., Johnson, B. T., Zanna, M. P. (2005). The handbook of attitudes. Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers Chaiken, S., Trope, Y. (1999). Dual-process theories in social psychology. New York: Guilford Press. Dillard, J.P. Pfau, M. (2002). The persuasion Handbook: Developments in Theory and Practice. NY: Sage Publications. Griffin, E. A. (2006). A first look at communication theory (6th ed.). Boston, MA; McGraw Hill. Reimer, T., Mata, R Stoecklin, M. (2004). The use of Heuristics in Persuasion: Deriving Cues on Source Expertise from Argument Quality. In Current Research in Social Psychology, 10(6), 69-83. Taleb, N. (2012). Antifragile: Things That Gain from Disorder. New York: Random House. How to cite Legalising Prostitution: Debate, communication model and evaluation, Essay examples

Legalising Prostitution Debate, communication model and evaluation Free Essays

Section 1: Group Discussion This section contains what was discussed during group discussion session. The general area of prejudice chosen for discussion was prostitution. Dubbed the oldest profession, there was unanimous observation among group members that prostitution is still loathed in the society, and commercial sex workers, mostly women, are still treated with contempt within our society. We will write a custom essay sample on Legalising Prostitution: Debate, communication model and evaluation or any similar topic only for you Order Now The common notion about prostitution is that whilst men are often ‘buyers’ of sex service from prostituting women, the latter are victims of exploitation. The term exploitation is used because women who engage in prostitution are seen to be compelled to engage in commercial sexual activities against their will. Whilst the common fact is that women who engage in prostitution see it as a source of income, and participate in it with their full consent without coercion, we observed that it is quite difficult to convince a person whose belief is entrenched in the moral dimension of commercial sex work that it is a normal activity. The prejudice against women is also entrenched by the belief that women who engage in this trade are of lesser social standing, even though this is always not the case. The other common belief is that while women prostitutes are looked down upon, men do not suffer any form of prejudice. In other words, men are often seen as the exploiters of sex workers, and hence do not enjoy any fair share of prejudice. On the other hand, both men and women engaging in prostitution are seen as morally repugnant, hence the common prejudice that come with it. The debate to legalise prostitution or not has been in the public domain for quite some time now. But it is the increased attention that it has received in the recent past that has invoked a lot of passionate debate in many legal jurisdictions as regards whether to legalise it or not. We may be all aware that one of the reasons why same-sex marriage has gained much currency today is because it is no longer viewed as socially unacceptable to the extent that it is not legal to hold gay couples in contempt in many countries. In recent past, it was not difficult to meet some strong views against marijuana user; with some even believing that the latter were losers who should be kept at the periphery of the society. However, criticism over marijuana use has waned in the recent past because of the recent revelation that it could be used to treat cancer. In addition, marijuana has also been used for pain relief for some time. This recent development has meant opposition to campaigns to keep marijuana illegal is at an all-time low. However, the same cannot be said about prostitution. The stigma associated with the sex trade remains strong, with women and men engaging in it seen as socially ambiguous individuals without moral standing in society. This kind of idea can promote dangerous conducts towards prostitutes. The fact that prostitutes are not regarded highly puts them at more risks to abuse including rape and murder. In addition, prostitutes are more likely to contract sexually transmitted diseases, further endangering their lives. Decriminalising prostitution will not only protect women but will also improve their safety and their rights, because however much it is made illegal, the oldest profession is not likely to go away anytime. Section 2: Commentary and Rationale This section will cover commentary on the topic and discuss it based on the chosen model of communication, the heuristic-systematic model. The debate on whether to legalise prostitution or not has intensified in the recent past, with voices advocating for the latter increasing in number every day. It’s no doubt that the stigma associated with prostitution is real, and remains strong amidst the growing knowledge that it will not stop any time soon. This is despite the rising evidence that decriminalising the trade has some significant health benefits. Research by two economists, Scott Cunningham and Manisha Shah (cited in Albarracin, et al., 2005, p. 78), looked at the situation in Rhodes Island when prostitution was accidentally decriminalised and found that cases of gonorrhoea had drastically reduced, as rape incidences. . Shannon et al. (2004, cited in Griffin, 2006, p.139) also confirmed this result when they conducted a study in Vancouver, British Colombia, and found out that decriminalising of prostitution can significantly reduce HIV prevalence by minimising its spread. Despite all the evidence showing the benefits of legalising prostitution, the benefits have not attracted the attention of the legislators. . In addition, many have argued that idea of legalising prostitution is unattractive to voters and therefore to politicians. There is need to focus on presenting arguments that provide options to the intended audience on the need to legalise abortion, and that is where the model for persuasive communication will be necessary in the subsequent section of this paper. The Heuristic-Systematic Model of Social Information Processing The concept of persuasion is an important aspect to not only convincing the people to accept an idea but also to drive changes of mind towards the accomplishment of the idea. The Heuristic-Systematic Model (Chaiken Trope, 1999) recognises that people either use heuristics and short-cuts to decide on important issues, or use a systematic mechanism that processes the merits and demerits of an argument. The Heuristic approach suggests that the decision-maker asks questions such as of ‘how do I feel about this issue?’ despite the recognition that such questions can cause problems of understanding and choice, particularly when the person facing the decision dilemma mixes up the cause and the effect of their emotions. In other words, the Heuristic-Systematic Model recognises that in any argument there are a number of variables that are conceptually independent of the message quality and which are likely to influence people to act or agree with the proposed idea. Dillard Pfau (2002) state that that these variables are able to qualitatively differentiate information processing, and give people more room to negotiate with their thinking process. It is important to recognise that people rarely process information in perfect conditions, because there are often environmental and cognitive constraints that tend to either limit the broadness of reasoning or curtail information processing. In this line of thought, people tend to process information economically; investing only in cognitive efforts when they feel motivated enough with a number of cognitive resources. In the prostitution decriminalisation debate, this can be said to affect that the way people reason, that is, arguments are likely to be based on strong environmental and cognitive influences entrenched by history, personal interest or fear, religious and cultural convictions. For instance, some arguments have emerged that prostitution should remain illegal because legalising it will mean women of loose morals will increasingly tempt men of good morals to increasingly betray their families. This kind of argument tends to make out that women who engage in prostitution a re the villains. The other belief is that women who engage in prostitution should be protected from being hurt against: sexually transmitted diseases, unruly pimps, and exploitation. The other argument would only be based on religion and historical cultural practices that prohibits prostitution as a trade. The three lines of arguments are motivated by different lines of thought, which can fall in either heuristic or systematic message processing mechanism. Ironically, the arguments against prostitution which include the view that women of loose morals prey upon upstanding men of good morals and lead them to betray their families has been accepted in some countries such as Sweden, which in 1999, criminalised the buying of sex but allowed individuals to continue selling it (Dillard Pfau, 2002). Many proponents of this legislation argued that violence against prostituting in women is inherent, and that the best way was to reduce prostitution prevalence by limiting activities of the potential buyers. On the other hand, the State of Nevada, United States legalised prostitution to protect women from exploitation and abuse (Taleb, 2012). The Heuristic- Systematic model posits that people generally process persuasive information systematically only when they are fully motivated. When one is in a systematic mode, they tend to take into consideration all relevant pieces of information, elaborately analyse the information, and make a judgment based on the elaborated issues. However, whenever people are not adequately motivated or do not possess sufficient cognitive resources, they often resort to processing of information heuristically or superficially. People in a heuristic mode of thinking consider only a few or a single informational cue and come up a judgment based on the cues. Whilst decriminalising or legalising prostitution has attracted massive debate, its inability to pass the legislative hurdle or even attract attention of the political class has been overbearing for its proponents. In other words, legalising of sex trade has not been high amongst the priorities of many legislative agendas for many countries, including United Kingdom and United States (Taleb, 2012). The reason why the Heuristic- Systematic model can work towards pushing for the legalisation of prostitution is because of its dualism nature, which allows the message to reach different classes of people. The goal here is to get support for legislation that would see prostitution decriminalised, and protect the parties involved. . Expert advice backed by research findings are powerful tool to convince legislators, who may not take their time to scrutinise the quality of persuasive arguments, and mostly prefer quick fixes in making decisions. Packaging a message heuristically can allow the legislators to pick the cue, and avoid the difficult process of differentiating a strong and a weak message (Griffin, 2006). Reimer, et al (2004, p.81) observe that â€Å"people who expect to discuss a persuasion message later are more affected by the number of persuasive arguments but are never affected by the attractiveness of the communicator.† It is presumed that the importance of the message easily induce systematic processing of the message. By contrast, people who do not expect to discuss the message are often affected by how attractive the communicator is, and not affected by the number of persuasive arguments (Reimer, et al, 2004). Studies have proven that motivational variables affect the mode in which people process persuasive arguments. These variables include personal relevance of the message, importance of the task, attitude accountability and exposure to a person’s attitude (Chaiken Trope, 1999). On the other hand, there are cognitive resource variables that affect the mode of message processing, which includes distraction, repetition of the message, creating time pressure, and modality of communication, knowledge and expertise (Griffin, 2006). Although it is important to recognise these modes of communicating the message in terms of communicating the value of legalising prostitution, it should not appear as though there is any form of dissociation of the variables at the early stage of the group means (Griffin, 2006). Similarly, heuristically communicating the message should be able to have direct effects on the attitudes of the target group. In this aspect, when the people agree in a consensus t hat prostitution should be legalised, then it can be considered correct and valid for acceptance. An important factor which should be covered by any dual-process model is how the two processes interact or work together. Although one may argue that the two processes, heuristic and systematic are mutually exclusive or are competing concepts, in this case of legalising prostitution they should work together. The Heuristic-Systematic model posits that the two processes, heuristic and systematic, are indeed working simultaneously. Evidence of how these two processes can work is when arguments pitting two judgmental implications of both of them. For instance, an expert source delivering a message consisting of weak arguments can present a scenario where both systematic and heuristic processing of messages is done under different levels of motivation. It is also important to note that the heuristic-systematic model attenuates that wherever the two processes opposes each other, the implica tions the comes from systematic processing can â€Å"easily attenuate the impact of heuristic given that people are sufficiently motivated.† For example, Griffin, (2006).found out those highly motivated participants who were presented with consensus cue information that is inconsistent with the attributes singularly based their judgments on their own cognitive prowess in relation to the product attributes. This concept is applicable in the case of prostitution legalisation debate, in the sense that legislators can use their own cues and decide on the legislative agendas that will legalise commercial sex work. Section 3: Evaluation Proposal Evaluating heuristic- systematic model effectiveness is an important part of this model’s success towards ensuring the message to legalise prostitution is effectively passed. Effective communications needs evaluation, which helps to identify the impact of the efforts made in passing the message to the target audience. To effectively monitor the communication model, various tools shall be used in the process. Public opinion evaluation: Getting the opinions of the public as far as legalising prostitution is concerned is an important point to start from. Public opinion monitoring tool will be used to ask the public if they heard about the campaign to legalise prostitution from opinion leaders including legislators and non-governmental organisations. In addition, the questions will be directed to ask the public whether they agree with the manner in which legislators in support of the prostitution presented their messages or agreed with them in the context and reasons given by the leaders. For example, questions such as: Whose arguments made sense in the call to legalise prostitutionAnd whyThe questionnaire trackers will be recorded in terms of age, gender, work status, tenacity. The methodology to be used will remain consistent over time to allow for the tracking of metrics over time for comparison purposes. Evaluating media Evaluating the media response on how effective the proposed model will work, the formal process for evaluating the impact of the campaign in the media is to analyse whether it can be replicated and made part of regular campaign mechanism. Media Coverage Before Campaign (airtime/space) Coverage After Campaign (airtime/ space) % Increase in Coverage BBC National News BBC London ITV National News London Tonight Evening Standard Metro Radio 4 Times The table above will provide a guideline on how the media coverage has increased/ or decreased due to the campaign. This will be able to help bring depth to the understanding of our campaign, and if the media (both mainstream and tabloids) respond to increased debate. By monitoring how the media has changed the amount of airtime/ or newspaper coverage space in covering the legislative debates, it is possible to analyse the outcome of the campaign in ensuring the legislators continually discuss the possibility of decriminalising or legalising prostitution. The media monitoring will be conducted by assistants on everyday basis, and compiled in a weekly report for tracking if there is any change in trends. Each article or piece of broadcast coverage will be allocated points based on the following criteria: Positivity/negativity of the message (in favour of legalising prostitution): analysing the articles, opinions, newspaper columns and news coverage. Positivity/ negativity of the headlines: positive mentions of the campaign groups, legislators; and Neutrality of opinions reported Finally, a range of stories will be typically evaluated and compiled on a daily basis, and tabulated on a weekly basis. Classification of stories will ensure the campaign program can be understood in the manner in which the media responds to the legislative debates, which is likely to translate into public debate as well. References Albarracin, D., Johnson, B. T., Zanna, M. P. (2005). The handbook of attitudes. Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers Chaiken, S., Trope, Y. (1999). Dual-process theories in social psychology. New York: Guilford Press. Dillard, J.P. Pfau, M. (2002). The persuasion Handbook: Developments in Theory and Practice. NY: Sage Publications. Griffin, E. A. (2006). A first look at communication theory (6th ed.). Boston, MA; McGraw Hill. Reimer, T., Mata, R Stoecklin, M. (2004). The use of Heuristics in Persuasion: Deriving Cues on Source Expertise from Argument Quality. In Current Research in Social Psychology, 10(6), 69-83. Taleb, N. (2012). Antifragile: Things That Gain from Disorder. New York: Random House. How to cite Legalising Prostitution: Debate, communication model and evaluation, Essay examples

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Underwater Photosynthesis of Submerged Plants free essay sample

The concept of photosynthesis was understood when the growth of Plants was studied. It is a natural process in which sunlight is used to prepare the required nutrient for the plant with the help of the green pigment of plants, i. e, and chlorophyll. However, when the sun sets there is no way that plant can prepare their meal. In the process of photosynthesis absorb carbon dioxide, carbon is converted into glucose and consume for their life-supporting needs, and oxygen is released into the atmosphere. In artificial photosynthesis, scientists are trying to create something similar with more expenditure of carbon dioxide from the environment. SO, artificial photosynthesis came into the process which emphasizes on receiving most of the energy from the sunlight and meant to effectively accumulate this energy as to utilize in the required time.The energy from the sunlight will be transformed into the chemical energy due to which it becomes more suitable for its storage. We will write a custom essay sample on Underwater Photosynthesis of Submerged Plants or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In this conversion, side products are not produced like the greenhouse gases. On the contrary, in the process carbon dioxide can be utilized in the same way as it does in plants. Artificial photosynthesis is developed through which plants can absorb carbon dioxide several times faster.Plants for this use chlorophyll. It is contained in leaves and captures sunlight, and a set of enzymes and other proteins uses this light to split water molecules into hydrogen, electrons, and oxygen (protons). Electrons and hydrogen are used to convert CO2 into nutrients for the plant, and oxygen is released into the atmosphere.To recreate photosynthesis in artificial conditions, two key steps are necessary: the ability to collect solar energy, and the ability to split water molecules. But unlike natural photosynthesis, it is necessary that the output is not oxygen, but hydrogen (or other biogas, for example, methane). An artificial sheet is a very place where semiconductors and living bacteria are placed, on which sunlight shines. To start the process of artificial photosynthesis in an artificial leaf during that very first experiment, scientists placed all the materials in the water, where carbon dioxide was pumped, while illuminating this entire system with sunlight. Semiconductors in this process collect solar energy, generating the charge necessary for the reaction in this solution to take place. The bacterium uses electrons generated by a semiconductor to convert (or reduce) the molecules of carbon dioxide, and as a result, create a liquid fuel it can be hydrogen, methane, ethanol, etc. At the same time, water is oxidized on the surface of another semiconductor and oxygen is released. But splitting the water molecule is not so simple; it requires about two and a half electron volts of energy. Therefore, we need a catalyst that â€Å"pushes† the chemical reaction.

Wednesday, March 25, 2020

Holistic Approaches to Development free essay sample

My focus with this assignment will be on education as a whole and to demonstrate a knowledge of key legislation in respect of curricula and initiatives within the widening childrens education work-force. I will do this through relevant reading and understanding gained from personal experience, demonstrating a comprehension of the holistic nature of learning and how it is developed through age-appropriate activities. I intend to show an understanding of the types, role and functions of play. I will relate them to theoretical and practical models of play and learning practised at my setting, where the Primary Years Programme is implemented. The Primary Year Programme (PYP) takes a holistic approach in developing the complete child. Practitioners endeavour to deliver a curriculum that is relevant and meaningful to the child. Piaget suggests the principal goal of education is to create people who are capable of original thought and of being creative and not simply repeating what previous generations have done. We will write a custom essay sample on Holistic Approaches to Development or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The PYP is a Primary Curriculum recognised world-wide and the PYP for Early Childhood synthesizes insights of educational research pioneers such as Maria Montessori and Rudolf Steiner who maintained that education should be understood as the art of cultivating the moral, emotional, physical, psychological and spiritual dimensions of the developing child (J,1013). Play is child-centred activity that engages young children and promotes learning. Play is the means by which children make sense of the world and is an effective method of teaching young children. Play is a context for learning through which children organise and understand their social worlds as they actively engage with people, objects and representations. An holistic approach to education focuses on the whole child with care and education being of equal importance; and is known as a combined holistic approach. Montessori and Steiner are among the most important of the many education theorists who have influenced the way children are educated today. Learning through play is one of the key principles that they and other education theorists advocated. All children have the right to be in a safe and welcoming environment. Keeping children safe is of course a non-negotiable element of any early years framework (Tickell, 2011. ) In the United Kingdom there is a wide range of legislation enacted specifically with the aim of protecting children and their families. The safeguarding and welfare requirements are given legal force by The Early Years Foundation Stage (Welfare Requirements) Regulations. EYFS is the legal framework for the welfare and safeguarding of all young children from birth through to the end of the reception years in all types of early years education provision. Learning Outcome 1 -You will need to produce clear evidence of your knowledge and understanding of key, recent legislation current initiatives pertinent to your setting practice. You can demonstrate this by discussing what is encompassed within the initiatives currently informing practice and identifying the various curricula available to parents, children and settings e. g. National Curriculum, The Early Years Foundation Stage, Steiner Approach, Montessori etc. Higher grades will be awarded if you can demonstrate a critical awareness of the importance of the key legislation current initiatives pertinent to your chosen age range within the setting Learning Outcome 2 You should show that you understand the nature and meaning of a holistic approach to learning and development, whilst recognising the need to provide strategies for incorporating a range of holistic age related curriculum-based learning activities, which help promote development through play and. You should also identify specific aspects of your age-related research as being of significance to holistic development and explain their importance. To improve the grade you must show that you have considered a wide and comprehensive range of strategies for incorporating holistic age related curriculum -based learning activities, which will help development through play and learning in the setting. Remember that the essay is intended to show your ability to integrate ideas and information drawn from a range of sources From early in the 20th century, a number of holistic approaches to early education have been put forward and refined (ref needed) . The most important principle of holistic education being to engender and nurture a sense of wonder in the child. Montessori, for example, spoke of cosmic education, which helps the young person feel part of the wholeness of the universe, so that learning will be naturally enchanting and inviting (Miller,2012 pg for a direct qoute). Holistic education is founded on the premise that each person finds identity, meaning, and purpose in life by connecting with the community, to the natural world and to spiritual values such as compassion and peace (J  ? author  ? , 2013). Miller date  ? describes holistic education as: . an attempt to return to the mysterious source of human creativity and authenticity for fresh inspiration. It seeks to enable the wholeness of the human being to emerge and develop as fully as possible. In contrast to progressive education, Holistic education sees the child as an emerging spiritual being within a larger planetary and cosmic ecology that extends beyond social and political realities. In Holistic education we must respond to the learner with an open, inquisitive mind, a loving heart and a sensitive understanding of the world he or she is growing into.. (Holistic Education, 2011). too long a qoute, break down into own words please While However, the Reggio Emilia approach to holistic education involves dealing with or rating the ‘whole’ of something or someone, and not just a part of the ‘whole’ (J  ? ,   2013). This approach also places great emphasis on artistic self-expression and engaged creativity. Miller (2006) suggests that while there is clearly no one method, after reviewing a number of different holistic teaching methodologies, he concluded that there are four key aspects of the holistic approach to teaching: Learning is organic, emergent, experimental and based on cooperation. There is a strong sense of community and engagement between children, parents and educators where those members feel strongly to care for one another There is a great respect for children’s inner life, with methods ranging from environmental spaces that facilitate time out of competitive nosier environments, to time to ask deeper questions about the meaning of life and spirituality. There are strong connections to nature, with the care and connection with the environment incorporated throughout the curriculum (Higgins, 2012) In keeping with a holistic approach, the Priamary Years Progra (PYP) curriculum is an inquiry-based transdisciplinary curriculum. Pre-planned teaching is facilitated only in so far as it initiates open-ended questioning and inquisitiveness. Children are given maximum opportunities for discovery. A child’s questions are an important part of what happens in a PYP classroom. The school aims to develop the whole child, so while developing academic knowledge and skills, we also develop a childs social and emotional skills and understanding. Children are taught to be caring individuals and encouraged to make a positive difference in the world. The IB Learner Profile Attributes guides schools in their holistic approach to education and includes the social and emotional aspects of a childs school life. The PYP teaches students that they can make a difference in their lives by being independent and making â€Å"good choices,† for example by turning lights off to save energy when leaving the classroom, or recycling materials to avoid unnecessary waste. Physical education too is an integral part of the PYP curriculum and provides vital opportunities for the physical, social, emotional and intellectual development of the child. In Nutbrown’s (2012 pg  ? ) review she asserts that, high quality early education and childcare can have a positive long term impact on a childs later learning and achievements. Connecting with nature is important for a childs spiritual development and should inform daily activity. Incorporating holistic activity into the early childhood classroom provides opportunities for children to connect with nature. Activities such as painting classes in a park or other open-air neighbourhood location expose children to nature, while painting on mirrors helps develop self-awareness and spirituality by encouraging creativity and the representation of ideas while having fun. These are all straightforward, uncomplicated, activities that encourage a child to be inquiring. Refs needed The extreme heat and humidity at certain times of the year in Hong Kong make it impractical to take children outside to explore and discover. When this happens, we do our best to bring the outside into the classroom. We use natural materials such as shells and leaaves to inspire and encourage creativity. We also provide tools more normally associated with adult usage, such as cameras, this to illustrate the point that children are competent and capable learners and able quickly to master relatively sophisticated technology. As our knowledge of each child increases and we become more familiar with his or her interests, we use this and festivals such as Diwali, Christmas and Thanksgiving to inform our planning Learning Outcome 3 This learning outcome requires you to show sound evidence of practical knowledge and understanding of theoretical and practical models of play and learning which incorporate examples of the different types, roles and functions of play in the widening children’s workforce setting. To improve you would need to demonstrate clear, concise, in depth evidence knowledge/understanding, of the application of practical and theoretical models of play and learning. Incorporating a range of examples of the different types, roles and functions of play. Smidt (2011) argues that Play may be defined as the way children, within a context, a culture, a family or a community explore or experience something that excites and interests them and is fun. Through play, children learn to express or communicate their feelings (Smidt,2011. ) Wood (2005) further supports this viewpoint by stating that †¦Play activity entails a wide range of behaviour and may be found in different contexts and with multiple meanings for children and adults . A holistic, place-based, approach to learning utilises the local community and environment to teach subjects across the curriculum, emphasising hands-on real life experiences. Ref here Blah Blah (2010) discusses how Various educational theorists have influenced the way young children are educated today. Among the most influential have been Rudolf Steiner and Maria Montessori ref. Both shared a belief in the importance of learning through their play. They believed that experimental learning through play was more effective teaching methods than ones that were directed and prescriptive ref. The Reggio Emilia approach, developed by Loris Malaguzzi,ref here emphasised the role of the child as a competent agent in his or her own learning. Within this setting, educators make informed choices about the pedagogical approaches and curriculum based on the theories and principles of Malaguzzi. There must be a reference or more within every paragraph to show where the info came from, it’s particularly important when discussing theory or viewpoints. Bruce (date) as cited in Smidt (date) clearly regards play as one of the most significant ways children learn. She refers to play as ‘an integrating mechanism. ’ When children are involved in self-chosen play, over which they have control of what they are doing, they are able to bring together many aspects of their learning, coordinating their activity in a way that brings about or creates new learning (Bruce, 1991 page ? ), enabling discovery and problem solving as the child becomes increasingly independent. There are play opportunities both inside the PYP (Primary Years Program) classroom and in the playground as the learning environment is equipped with material that provides for a range of creative learning. A PYP classroom reflects what Moyles (date) regards as one of the most significant aspects of play that of ‘ownership,’ meaning that the child takes control over finding answers to questions that interest him or her. Wood 2005) recognizes that Play cannot always be easily defined or categorised because it is always context dependent and the contexts are varied (Wood,2005). Types of play cognitive play, involved play, passive play, pretend and socio-dramatic. She discusses this viewpoint further by stating The context of play will determine its nature and category, play is therefore context-dependent (Wood, 2005). However, as the context varies, so will the nature of play in which the child engages: cognitive play, involved play, passive play, pretend play and Socio-dramatic play being the most important types. The physical development young children is also essential. Research has shown that physical activity in young children can enhance concentration, motivation, learning and well-being. Early Years educators use their knowledge of developmentally appropriate practice and the interests of the child to organise activities that provide opportunities for freedom of movement and physical stimulation. Refs needed throughout this paragraph Piaget, another theorist, (date, cited in? ) believed that play and imitation were an important feature of his theory. He saw play as almost pure assimilation without any attempt to adapt to outer reality (Wood, 2005). While Erikson ref thought the world of play was very important in the early stage of a childs development, providing, as it did, a safe place for a child to work through conflicts in its life. Piaget, Erikson and Vygotsky ref all agreed that children use play as a way of teaching themselves. A child plays through situations very much as adults might think through a problem or difficult circumstances in which they find themselves. Children, of course, can more readily and naturally engage in fantasy play, when they delve into symbolic representations of objects and ideas by acting them out as part of a game or other form of play. ref Try to widen references from Wood, and use more than one ref in a paragraph. If you use the same source within a paragraph, you can use the term (ibid) which means ‘the same’ in Latin. You can only use it with the paragraph that you’ve cited the author e. g.   blah blah blah (ibid) Its important you are using wider reading within and throughout the work There should also be a conclusion, which shows awareness of good practice and professional development through the implementation of this module. Throughout the essay, you must show the ability to integrate a range of information, drawn from a wide and varied area of sources (LO 4) Learning Outcome 4 You will need to draw upon a range of contemporary source materials to inform your individual research into the impact of current/pending government initiatives legislative factors on early years settings and the resultant age-related curricula delivered. Educational researched-based journal articles afford the best opportunity of achieving this. Use of tertiary sources and of web-based material is permitted but is unlikely to attract significant additional marks. Sourcing and researching other related material may also earn additional marks Conclusion: Holistic approaches encompass, as the names suggests, a broad range of teaching goals and aspirations for children’s learning that extends well beyond academic learning into fields of social and emotional wellbeing. While this can at first seem overwhelming, teachers can find the small opportunities in their day to day practice to incorporate and extend ideas that promote connection, community and wellbeing. Holistic Approaches to Development free essay sample My focus with this assignment will be on education as a whole and to demonstrate a knowledge of key legislation in respect of curricula and initiatives within the widening childrens education work-force. I will do this through relevant reading and understanding gained from personal experience, demonstrating a comprehension of the holistic nature of learning and how it is developed through age-appropriate activities. I intend to show an understanding of the types, role and functions of play. I will relate them to theoretical and practical models of play and learning practised at my setting, where the Primary Years Programme is implemented. The Primary Year Programme (PYP) takes a holistic approach in developing the complete child. Practitioners endeavour to deliver a curriculum that is relevant and meaningful to the child. Piaget suggests the principal goal of education is to create people who are capable of original thought and of being creative and not simply repeating what previous generations have done. We will write a custom essay sample on Holistic Approaches to Development or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The PYP is a Primary Curriculum recognised world-wide and the PYP for Early Childhood synthesizes insights of educational research pioneers such as Maria Montessori and Rudolf Steiner who maintained that education should be understood as the art of cultivating the moral, emotional, physical, psychological and spiritual dimensions of the developing child (J,1013). Play is child-centred activity that engages young children and promotes learning. Play is the means by which children make sense of the world and is an effective method of teaching young children. Play is a context for learning through which children organise and understand their social worlds as they actively engage with people, objects and representations. An holistic approach to education focuses on the whole child with care and education being of equal importance; and is known as a combined holistic approach. Montessori and Steiner are among the most important of the many education theorists who have influenced the way children are educated today. Learning through play is one of the key principles that they and other education theorists advocated. All children have the right to be in a safe and welcoming environment. Keeping children safe is of course a non-negotiable element of any early years framework (Tickell, 2011. ) In the United Kingdom there is a wide range of legislation enacted specifically with the aim of protecting children and their families. The safeguarding and welfare requirements are given legal force by The Early Years Foundation Stage (Welfare Requirements) Regulations. EYFS is the legal framework for the welfare and safeguarding of all young children from birth through to the end of the reception years in all types of early years education provision. Learning Outcome 1 -You will need to produce clear evidence of your knowledge and understanding of key, recent legislation current initiatives pertinent to your setting practice. You can demonstrate this by discussing what is encompassed within the initiatives currently informing practice and identifying the various curricula available to parents, children and settings e. g. National Curriculum, The Early Years Foundation Stage, Steiner Approach, Montessori etc. Higher grades will be awarded if you can demonstrate a critical awareness of the importance of the key legislation current initiatives pertinent to your chosen age range within the setting Learning Outcome 2 You should show that you understand the nature and meaning of a holistic approach to learning and development, whilst recognising the need to provide strategies for incorporating a range of holistic age related curriculum-based learning activities, which help promote development through play and. You should also identify specific aspects of your age-related research as being of significance to holistic development and explain their importance. To improve the grade you must show that you have considered a wide and comprehensive range of strategies for incorporating holistic age related curriculum -based learning activities, which will help development through play and learning in the setting. Remember that the essay is intended to show your ability to integrate ideas and information drawn from a range of sources From early in the 20th century, a number of holistic approaches to early education have been put forward and refined (ref needed) . The most important principle of holistic education being to engender and nurture a sense of wonder in the child. Montessori, for example, spoke of cosmic education, which helps the young person feel part of the wholeness of the universe, so that learning will be naturally enchanting and inviting (Miller,2012 pg for a direct qoute). Holistic education is founded on the premise that each person finds identity, meaning, and purpose in life by connecting with the community, to the natural world and to spiritual values such as compassion and peace (J  ? author  ? , 2013). Miller date  ? describes holistic education as: . an attempt to return to the mysterious source of human creativity and authenticity for fresh inspiration. It seeks to enable the wholeness of the human being to emerge and develop as fully as possible. In contrast to progressive education, Holistic education sees the child as an emerging spiritual being within a larger planetary and cosmic ecology that extends beyond social and political realities. In Holistic education we must respond to the learner with an open, inquisitive mind, a loving heart and a sensitive understanding of the world he or she is growing into.. (Holistic Education, 2011). too long a qoute, break down into own words please While However, the Reggio Emilia approach to holistic education involves dealing with or rating the ‘whole’ of something or someone, and not just a part of the ‘whole’ (J  ? ,   2013). This approach also places great emphasis on artistic self-expression and engaged creativity. Miller (2006) suggests that while there is clearly no one method, after reviewing a number of different holistic teaching methodologies, he concluded that there are four key aspects of the holistic approach to teaching: Learning is organic, emergent, experimental and based on cooperation. There is a strong sense of community and engagement between children, parents and educators where those members feel strongly to care for one another There is a great respect for children’s inner life, with methods ranging from environmental spaces that facilitate time out of competitive nosier environments, to time to ask deeper questions about the meaning of life and spirituality. There are strong connections to nature, with the care and connection with the environment incorporated throughout the curriculum (Higgins, 2012) In keeping with a holistic approach, the Priamary Years Progra (PYP) curriculum is an inquiry-based transdisciplinary curriculum. Pre-planned teaching is facilitated only in so far as it initiates open-ended questioning and inquisitiveness. Children are given maximum opportunities for discovery. A child’s questions are an important part of what happens in a PYP classroom. The school aims to develop the whole child, so while developing academic knowledge and skills, we also develop a childs social and emotional skills and understanding. Children are taught to be caring individuals and encouraged to make a positive difference in the world. The IB Learner Profile Attributes guides schools in their holistic approach to education and includes the social and emotional aspects of a childs school life. The PYP teaches students that they can make a difference in their lives by being independent and making â€Å"good choices,† for example by turning lights off to save energy when leaving the classroom, or recycling materials to avoid unnecessary waste. Physical education too is an integral part of the PYP curriculum and provides vital opportunities for the physical, social, emotional and intellectual development of the child. In Nutbrown’s (2012 pg  ? ) review she asserts that, high quality early education and childcare can have a positive long term impact on a childs later learning and achievements. Connecting with nature is important for a childs spiritual development and should inform daily activity. Incorporating holistic activity into the early childhood classroom provides opportunities for children to connect with nature. Activities such as painting classes in a park or other open-air neighbourhood location expose children to nature, while painting on mirrors helps develop self-awareness and spirituality by encouraging creativity and the representation of ideas while having fun. These are all straightforward, uncomplicated, activities that encourage a child to be inquiring. Refs needed The extreme heat and humidity at certain times of the year in Hong Kong make it impractical to take children outside to explore and discover. When this happens, we do our best to bring the outside into the classroom. We use natural materials such as shells and leaaves to inspire and encourage creativity. We also provide tools more normally associated with adult usage, such as cameras, this to illustrate the point that children are competent and capable learners and able quickly to master relatively sophisticated technology. As our knowledge of each child increases and we become more familiar with his or her interests, we use this and festivals such as Diwali, Christmas and Thanksgiving to inform our planning This learning outcome requires you to show sound evidence of practical knowledge and understanding of theoretical and practical models of play and learning which incorporate examples of the different types, roles and functions of play in the widening children’s workforce setting. To improve you would need to demonstrate clear, concise, in depth evidence knowledge/understanding, of the application of practical and theoretical models of play and learning. Incorporating a range of examples of the different types, roles and functions of play. Smidt (2011) argues that Play may be defined as the way children, within a context, a culture, a family or a community explore or experience something that excites and interests them and is fun. Through play, children learn to express or communicate their feelings (Smidt,2011. ) Wood (2005) further supports this viewpoint by stating that †¦Play activity entails a wide range of behaviour and may be found in different contexts and with multiple meanings for children and adults (Wood,2005. A holistic, place-based, approach to learning utilises the local community and environment to teach subjects across the curriculum, emphasising hands-on real life experiences. Ref here Blah Blah (2010) discusses how Various educational theorists have influenced the way young children are educated today. Among the most influential have been Rudolf Steiner and Maria Montessori ref. Both shared a belief in the importance of learning through their play. They believed that experimental learning through play was more effective teaching methods than ones that were directed and prescriptive ref. The Reggio Emilia approach, developed by Loris Malaguzzi,ref here emphasised the role of the child as a competent agent in his or her own learning. Within this setting, educators make informed choices about the pedagogical approaches and curriculum based on the theories and principles of Malaguzzi. There must be a reference or more within every paragraph to show where the info came from, it’s particularly important when discussing theory or viewpoints. Bruce (date) as cited in Smidt (date) clearly regards play as one of the most significant ways children learn. She refers to play as ‘an integrating mechanism. ’ When children are involved in self-chosen play, over which they have control of what they are doing, they are able to bring together many aspects of their learning, coordinating their activity in a way that brings about or creates new learning (Bruce, 1991 page ? ), enabling discovery and problem solving as the child becomes increasingly independent. There are play opportunities both inside the PYP (Primary Years Program) classroom and in the playground as the learning environment is equipped with material that provides for a range of creative learning. A PYP classroom reflects what Moyles (date) regards as one of the most significant aspects of play that of ‘ownership,’ meaning that the child takes control over finding answers to questions that interest him or her. Wood 2005) recognizes that Play cannot always be easily defined or categorised because it is always context dependent and the contexts are varied (Wood,2005). Types of play cognitive play, involved play, passive play, pretend and socio-dramatic. She discusses this viewpoint further by stating The context of play will determine its nature and category, play is therefore context-dependent (Wood, 2005). However, as the context varies, so will the nature of play in which the child engages: cognitive play, involved play, passive play, pretend play and Socio-dramatic play being the most important types. The physical development young children is also essential. Research has shown that physical activity in young children can enhance concentration, motivation, learning and well-being. Early Years educators use their knowledge of developmentally appropriate practice and the interests of the child to organise activities that provide opportunities for freedom of movement and physical stimulation. Refs needed throughout this paragraph Piaget, another theorist, (date, cited in? ) believed that play and imitation were an important feature of his theory. He saw play as almost pure assimilation without any attempt to adapt to outer reality (Wood, 2005). While Erikson ref thought the world of play was very important in the early stage of a childs development, providing, as it did, a safe place for a child to work through conflicts in its life. Piaget, Erikson and Vygotsky ref all agreed that children use play as a way of teaching themselves. A child plays through situations very much as adults might think through a problem or difficult circumstances in which they find themselves. Children, of course, can more readily and naturally engage in fantasy play, when they delve into symbolic representations of objects and ideas by acting them out as part of a game or other form of play. ref Try to widen references from Wood, and use more than one ref in a paragraph. If you use the same source within a paragraph, you can use the term (ibid) which means ‘the same’ in Latin. You can only use it with the paragraph that you’ve cited the author e. g. Wood (2005) †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ blah blah blah (ibid) Its important you are using wider reading within and throughout the work There should also be a conclusion, which shows awareness of good practice and professional development through the implementation of this module. Throughout the essay, you must show the ability to integrate a range of information, drawn from a wide and varied area of sources (LO 4) Learning Outcome 4 You will need to draw upon a range of contemporary source materials to inform your individual research into the impact of current/pending government initiatives legislative factors on early years settings and the resultant age-related curricula delivered. Educational researched-based journal articles afford the best opportunity of achieving this. Use of tertiary sources and of web-based material is permitted but is unlikely to attract significant additional marks. Sourcing and researching other related material may also earn additional marks.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Modernity and the Holocaust essays

Modernity and the Holocaust essays Q1. In Modernity and the Holocaust by Zygmunt Bauman, he introduces the concept of morality, based on the tragic history of the Holocaust. Morality can best be defined as the quality of an action which renders it good; the conformity of an act to the accepted standard of right (Dictionary.com). He goes on to explain his interest in modern civilization and he questions, what kind of society is this that morality does not exist? Bauman chose to elaborate on the Holocaust; he felt that this matter is inarguable. He elaborates on the fact that the 12 million people that were killed in the Holocaust were innocent. Six million of these were Jewish, the rest were Gypsy and anyone who was known to be homosexual, mentally disturbed or political enemies of the state. They were all killed, however none of these individuals fit the role of a criminal. These people were targeted because they were not considered pure blood; they were not of the Ariant race. Bauman stresses the fact that in order for all of this to have occurred, there had to be a strong organization. So strong that the people that participated in this massacre followed orders and did as they were told. These people that did not realize the immoral act that they were committing. This is exactly what Bauman questions, the fact that how can people loose all moral responsibility during work? In todays society, people partake in jobs that require specific responsibilities, no moral leeway. These types of jobs are evident in all of society. Based upon my knowledge of how people work, I have chosen a job that causes suffering to others although the people who work at that job do not recognize their cruelty. This job is laboratory scientists/animal testers. This job ends up producing cruel consequences, in that it tests on innocent animals for the sake of research. As an animal activist one can assure that not only is this job cruel, but also i ...